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Frankreich National

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Frankreich National Begegnungen Video

Frankreich: Rechtsextreme auf dem Vormarsch - Fokus Europa

In diesem Fall stiege von dort ein Verein weniger in die National ab. Stade Briochin. Eine dritte Liga als echter Unterbau der professionellen Spielklassen Kalaha dann erst wieder geschaffen; sie bestand aus zuletzt sechs regionalen Gruppen mit je 16 Mannschaften. Frauenliga Vereins-Freundschaftsspiele. FRANKREICHNational. Spieltag. SO Cholet. FC Annecy. Sporting Club Lyon. US Quevilly. Spieltag. Le Mans FC. US Orléans. Folge National / Tabellen, gesamt, heim/auswärts und Form (letzte 5 Spiele) National / Tabellen. National (Frankreich) / - Ergebnisse u. Tabelle: alle Paarungen und Termine der Runde. Championnat National (Liga, Frankreich) ⬢ Spieltag ⬢ Ergebnisse, Spiele und Termine zum Spieltag ⬢ Alle Tabellen ⬢ Live-Ticker. North America Www.Joyclub.Com. Each year, the enrolment period for international students is between Cookies Und Cache Löschen December and 31st January. Archived from the original on 28 August Summers are chilly and wet, while winters are extremely cold, long and snowy.

Noch dazu hatte Frankreichs Armee im Ersten Weltkrieg die relativ höchsten Verluste aller kriegführenden Staaten erlitten. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg war dann nach langer Zeit wieder ein Geburtenzuwachs und Bevölkerungsanstieg zu verzeichnen, der zum Teil auch verursacht war durch verstärkte Zuwanderung vor allem aus früheren französischen Kolonien.

Januar insgesamt Damit habe das Land erstmals die Millionen-Marke überschritten. Danach ergaben sich unerklärliche Sprünge in der Bevölkerungsentwicklung.

Städte, deren Bevölkerung zuvor kontinuierlich abgenommen hatte, insbesondere Paris, nahmen plötzlich sprunghaft zu.

Auch war das Bild uneinheitlich. Frankreich ist nach Deutschland das zweit-bevölkerungsreichste Land der Europäischen Union ; war es auf Platz 21 der bevölkerungsreichsten Staaten der Welt.

Die Geburtenbilanz des Jahres war positiv: Es wurden Die Wanderungsbilanz war ebenfalls positiv: Es wanderten Diese Pacs genannte Partnerschaft wurde eingeführt; wurden Es stieg seit um fast zwei Jahre.

Aufgrund des langsamen Bevölkerungswachstums kannte Frankreich bereits in der Mitte des Jahrhunderts das Problem des Arbeitskräftemangels. Ab lebten und arbeiteten somit etwa eine Million Ausländer in Frankreich; sie stellten sieben bis acht Prozent der Erwerbstätigen.

Danach wurde die Einwanderung stark eingeschränkt, Flüchtlinge etwa aus dem Spanischen Bürgerkrieg ausgewiesen oder interniert.

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg warb Frankreich wiederum Gastarbeiter vor allem aus Spanien und Portugal an und behielt bis eine sehr liberale Einwanderungspolitik bei.

Davon hatten 2,72 Millionen die französische Staatsbürgerschaft angenommen. Die Verfassung der Fünften Französischen Republik definiert, dass der Zugang zu Bildung, Ausbildung und Kultur für alle Bürger gleich zu sein hat und dass das Unterhalten eines unentgeltlichen und laizistischen öffentlichen Schulwesens Aufgabe des Staates ist.

Demnach ist das Bildungssystem Frankreichs zentralistisch organisiert; die Gebietskörperschaften müssen die Infrastruktur bereitstellen.

Ausbildung über Bildung. Seit herrscht Unterrichtspflicht bis zum Lebensjahr; [36] Hausunterricht ist erlaubt.

Er wird von einem hohen Prozentsatz der Kinder besucht. Der Besuch ist ganztägig und gebührenfrei, nur optionale Zusatzangebote für Betreuung zu Randzeiten sowie die mittägliche Verpflegung müssen von den Eltern bezahlt werden.

Hiernach hat der Jugendliche mehrere Möglichkeiten. Mehrere Schulzweige wie naturwissenschaftlich, wirtschaftlich oder literarisch werden unterschieden.

LMD bedeutet, dass nacheinander die Licence bzw. Bachelor nach drei Jahren , der Master nach fünf Jahren und das Doktorat nach acht Jahren erworben werden können.

Trotzdem sprach im Jahrhundert nur etwa die Hälfte der Untertanen der französischen Könige Französisch. Die Europäische Charta der Regional- oder Minderheitensprachen hat Frankreich zwar unterschrieben, jedoch nicht ratifiziert.

Weiterhin werden in den Überseebesitzungen verschiedenste Sprachen wie Kreolsprachen , Polynesische Sprachen oder Kanak-Sprachen in Neukaledonien gesprochen.

Anders als z. Auch bei den Ortsnamen und Flurnamen spiegeln sich regionale Einflüsse nur bedingt wider. So sind deutschsprachige Bezeichnungen im Elsass noch sehr weit verbreitet, nicht jedoch in Lothringen.

Analog dazu blieben auf Korsika die italienischen Namen auch nach der Angliederung an Frankreich weitestgehend bestehen, dies ist bei den Gebieten auf dem Festland Savoyen , Grafschaft Nizza bzw.

Alpes-Maritimes , welche früher mit Italien assoziiert waren, dagegen nicht der Fall. Der Ortsname Nizza kommt zwar aus dem Italienischen, vor Ort ist jedoch nur die französische Bezeichnung Nice die offiziell gebräuchliche.

Um die französische Sprache vor der Vereinnahmung durch Anglizismen zu schützen, wurde die Loi Toubon verabschiedet.

Die Einwanderer verschiedener Nationen, vor allem aus Portugal , Osteuropa , dem Maghreb und dem restlichen Afrika , haben ihre Sprachen mitgebracht.

Da von staatlicher Seite keine Daten über die Religionszugehörigkeit der Einwohner erhoben werden, beruhen alle Angaben über die konfessionelle Zusammensetzung der Bevölkerung auf Schätzungen oder den Angaben der Religionsgemeinschaften selbst und weichen deshalb oft erheblich voneinander ab, weshalb auch die folgenden Zahlen mit Vorsicht zu behandeln sind.

In einer Umfrage von Le Monde des religions bezeichneten sich 51 Prozent der Franzosen als katholisch , 31 Prozent erklärten, keiner Religion anzugehören, und etwa 9 Prozent gaben an, Muslime zu sein.

Fast alle protestantischen Kirchen in Frankreich, von denen die Vereinigte Protestantische Kirche Frankreichs die mitgliederstärkste ist, arbeiten im Französischen Evangelischen Kirchenbund zusammen.

Unter den Katholiken ist laut Umfragen nur ein geringer Teil tatsächlich gläubig und praktizierend, allerdings sind umgekehrt auch Strömungen des katholischen Traditionalismus in Frankreich stark vertreten.

Beides sind im weltweiten Vergleich sehr niedrige Werte. Historisch war Frankreich lange Zeit ein katholisch dominierter Staat.

Seit Ludwig XI. In der Reformationszeit blieb Frankreich immer mehrheitlich katholisch, auch wenn es starke protestantische Minderheiten Hugenotten gab.

Diese mussten aber spätestens nach der Bartholomäusnacht die Hoffnung auf ein protestantisches Frankreich aufgeben. Erst kurz vor der Französischen Revolution erhielten die Protestanten eine begrenzte Glaubensfreiheit zugestanden.

Die Französische Revolution hob dann alle Beschränkungen der Glaubensfreiheit auf. Nicht nur die Privilegien der Kirche, sondern sogar der christliche Kalender und Gottesdienst wurden abgeschafft und durch einen Revolutionskalender bzw.

Unter Napoleon Bonaparte kam es mit dem Konkordat von aber wieder zu einem Ausgleich zwischen katholischer Kirche und Staat. Die katholische Kirche als Institution wurde zu den letzten gerechnet, und viele Republikaner nahmen ausgesprochen antiklerikale Standpunkte ein.

Mit dem am 9. Dezember verabschiedeten Gesetz zur Trennung von Kirche und Staat wurden der Kirchenbesitz weitgehend enteignet und die strikte Trennung von Kirche und Staat festgeschrieben.

Dort gilt bis heute im Wesentlichen die Regelung von Die jüdische Gemeinschaft in Frankreich hat eine wechselhafte Geschichte. Seit der Römerzeit lebten Juden in Frankreich.

Sie wurden jedoch in zwei Wellen unter Philipp IV. Über viele Jahrhunderte gab es danach kaum ein jüdisches Leben in Frankreich.

Einzige Ausnahme blieben die im Frankreich blieb aber bis Anfang des Jahrhunderts ein Land mit vergleichsweise geringer jüdischer Bevölkerung.

Im Zusammenhang mit einem rasant steigenden Antisemitismus und der stagnierenden Wirtschaft gibt es jedes Jahr Tausende von jüdischen Auswanderern.

Es wird vermutet, dass zwischen den Jahren und mehr als Ebenfalls seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges ist eine starke Zunahme des Anteils an Muslimen zu verzeichnen, die auf Zuwanderung aus den ehemaligen Kolonien zurückgeht.

Es wird geschätzt, dass das heutige Frankreich vor etwa Aus der Altsteinzeit sind in der Höhle von Lascaux bedeutende Felsmalereien erhalten geblieben.

Ab v. Die keltischen Gallier mit ihrer druidischen Religion werden heute häufig als Vorfahren der Franzosen gesehen und Vercingetorix zum ersten Nationalhelden Frankreichs verklärt, wenngleich kaum gallische Elemente in der französischen Kultur verblieben sind.

Siehe auch Keltomanie. Zwischen 58 und 51 v. Ab dem 5. Jahrhundert wanderten vermehrt germanische Völker nach Gallien ein, die nach dem Zerfall des Römischen Reiches eigene Reiche gründeten.

Sie übernahmen zahlreiche römische Werte und Einrichtungen, u. Im Jahre gelang es ihnen, in der Schlacht von Tours und Poitiers der von der iberischen Halbinsel ausgehenden Islamischen Expansion Einhalt zu gebieten.

Die Karolinger folgten den Merowingern nach. Das französische Mittelalter war geprägt durch den Aufstieg des Königtums im stetigen Kampf gegen die Unabhängigkeit des Hochadels und die weltliche Gewalt der Klöster und Ordensgemeinschaften.

Die Normannen fielen wiederholt in der Normandie ein, die daher ihren Namen bekam; im Jahre eroberten sie England.

Unter Ludwig VII. Philipp II. Das Land verfügte mit der Scholastik , der gotischen und romanischen Architektur über bedeutende kulturelle Errungenschaften.

Thronansprüche, die Eduard III. Zusätzlich zum Hundertjährigen Krieg raffte die Pest von etwa ein Drittel der Bevölkerung dahin.

Mit der Eingliederung Burgunds und der Bretagne in den französischen Staat befand sich das Königtum auf einem vorläufigen Höhepunkt seiner Macht, wurde jedoch während der Renaissance in dieser Position durch Habsburg bedroht — der habsburgische Kaiser Karl V.

Ab der Reformation im frühen Jahrhundert breitete sich, vor allem durch das Wirken von Johannes Calvin , der Protestantismus nach Frankreich aus.

Die französischen Calvinisten , genannt Hugenotten , wurden in ihrer Glaubensausübung stark unterdrückt. Die Hugenottenkriege führten zu bis zu 4 Millionen Toten.

Als Höhepunkt gilt die Bartholomäusnacht im Jahre Die Renaissance -Zeit war auch von einer stärkeren Zentralisierung geprägt, der König wurde von der Kirche und dem Adel unabhängig.

Es gelang den leitenden Ministern und Kardinälen Richelieu und Jules Mazarin , einen absolutistischen Staat zu errichten. Es begann das Zeitalter der französischen Dominanz in Europa.

Alle Herrscher Europas orientierten sich am Vorbild der französischen Kultur. Das Französische wurde zur dominierenden Bildungssprache.

Trotz schwerer Strafandrohungen flohen abermals zirka Mehr als Unter Ludwig XIV. In dieser Zeit wurde das Schloss Versailles errichtet.

Die sich weiter verschlechternden Lebensbedingungen des Volkes führten zur Französischen Revolution mit der Erklärung der Menschen- und Bürgerrechte als zentraler Errungenschaft.

Die Kirche wurde enteignet und sogar ein neuer Kalender eingeführt. Die verabschiedete Verfassung machte Frankreich zu einer konstitutionellen Monarchie.

Nach der versuchten Flucht des Königs wurde dieser verhaftet und hingerichtet, die Erste Republik wurde verkündet. Die erste Erfahrung mit republikanischer Herrschaft, die auf dem Gleichheitsprinzip beruhte, endete jedoch im Chaos und der Terrorherrschaft unter Robespierre.

Napoleon Bonaparte ergriff in dieser Situation mit einem Staatsstreich die Macht als Erster Konsul ; krönte er sich selbst zum Kaiser. In den folgenden Koalitionskriegen brachte er fast ganz Europa unter seine Kontrolle.

Sein Russlandfeldzug wurde jedoch ein Fehlschlag, die Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig besiegelte die Niederlage der französischen Truppen.

Nach der Niederlage in der Schlacht bei Waterloo wurde er endgültig verbannt. Die Restauration brachte wieder die Bourbonen auf den Thron, die darangingen, das verlorene Kolonialreich wieder aufzubauen.

In Frankreich fand gleichzeitig die Industrielle Revolution statt, wobei sich langsam eine Arbeiterklasse herausbildete.

Die Julirevolution von stürzte den despotisch regierenden Karl X. Eine erneute bürgerliche Revolution brachte Frankreich die Zweite Republik. Die Pariser Kommune , ein Aufstand, der sich gegen die Kapitulation richtete, wurde mit Gewalt und zahlreichen Todesopfern niedergeschlagen.

Die Dritte Republik währte von bis Die Industrialisierung Frankreichs führte zu einem Wirtschaftsaufschwung: , und fanden in Paris Weltausstellungen statt.

Beide Länder praktizierten Imperialismus. Nach dem Krieg war Frankreich zwar auf der Siegerseite, Nordfrankreich war jedoch weitgehend verwüstet.

Die Zwischenkriegszeit war in Frankreich vor allem von politischer Instabilität gekennzeichnet. Im Friedensvertrag von Versailles wurde Deutschland verpflichtet, hohe Reparationen an die Siegermächte zu leisten.

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Scoresway www. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. At the end of the last glacial period 10, BC , the climate became milder; [29] from approximately 7, BC, this part of Western Europe entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary.

After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium, initially working gold, copper and bronze , and later iron.

This makes it France's oldest city. The concept of Gaul emerged during this period, corresponding to the territories of Celtic settlement ranging between the Rhine , the Atlantic Ocean, the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean.

The borders of modern France roughly correspond to ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls. Gaul was then a prosperous country, of which the southernmost part was heavily subject to Greek and Roman cultural and economic influences.

Gaul was divided by Augustus into Roman provinces. The Gauls mixed with Roman settlers and eventually adopted Roman culture and Roman speech Latin , from which the French language evolved.

The Roman polytheism merged with the Gallic paganism into the same syncretism. From the s to the s AD, Roman Gaul suffered a serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked on several occasions by barbarians.

Subsequently, Christians, who had been persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire. At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius.

Simultaneously, Celtic Britons , fleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain , settled the western part of Armorica. As a result, the Armorican peninsula was renamed Brittany , Celtic culture was revived and independent petty kingdoms arose in this region.

The first leader to make himself king of all the Franks was Clovis I , who began his reign in , routing the last forces of the Roman governors of the province in Clovis claimed that he would be baptized a Christian in the event of his victory against the Visigoths , which was said to have guaranteed the battle.

Clovis regained the southwest from the Visigoths , was baptized in , and made himself master of what is now western Germany.

The Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages , except in northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense and where Germanic languages emerged.

Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynasty , but his kingdom would not survive his death. The last Merovingian kings lost power to their mayors of the palace head of household.

One mayor of the palace, Charles Martel , defeated an Islamic invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms.

His son, Pepin the Short , seized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin's son, Charlemagne , reunited the Frankish kingdoms and built a vast empire across Western and Central Europe.

Charlemagne's son, Louis I Emperor — , kept the empire united; however, this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death.

West Francia approximated the area occupied by, and was the precursor to, modern France. During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by Viking invasions , France became a very decentralized state: the nobility's titles and lands became hereditary, and the authority of the king became more religious than secular and thus was less effective and constantly challenged by powerful noblemen.

Thus was established feudalism in France. Over time, some of the king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed a threat to the king.

For example, after the Battle of Hastings in , William the Conqueror added "King of England" to his titles, becoming both the vassal to as Duke of Normandy and the equal of as king of England the king of France, creating recurring tensions.

Later kings would expand their directly possessed domaine royal to cover over half of modern continental France by the 15th century, including most of the north, centre and west of France.

During this process, the royal authority became more and more assertive, centered on a hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility , clergy, and commoners.

The French nobility played a prominent role in most Crusades to restore Christian access to the Holy Land. French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly referred to the crusaders as Franj caring little whether they really came from France.

The latter, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in The Albigensian Crusade was launched in to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the southwestern area of modern-day France.

In the end, the Cathars were exterminated and the autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into the crown lands of France.

From the 11th century, the House of Plantagenet, the rulers of the County of Anjou , succeeded in establishing its dominion over the surrounding provinces of Maine and Touraine , then progressively built an "empire" that spanned from England to the Pyrenees and covering half of modern France.

Tensions between the kingdom of France and the Plantagenet empire would last a hundred years, until Philip II of France conquered, between and most of the continental possessions of the empire, leaving England and Aquitaine to the Plantagenets.

Following the Battle of Bouvines , the Angevin court retreated to England, but persistent Capetian—Plantagenet rivalry would pave the way for another conflict, the Hundred Years' War.

Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in During the reign of Philip of Valois , the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power. With charismatic leaders, such as Joan of Arc and La Hire , strong French counterattacks won back most English continental territories.

The French Renaissance saw a spectacular cultural development and the first standardisation of the French language, which would become the official language of France and the language of Europe's aristocracy.

It also saw a long set of wars, known as the Italian Wars , between France and the House of Habsburg. French explorers, such as Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain , claimed lands in the Americas for France, paving the way for the expansion of the First French colonial empire.

The rise of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civil war known as the French Wars of Religion , where, in the most notorious incident, thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St.

Bartholomew's Day massacre of Spanish troops, the terror of Western Europe, [57] assisted the Catholic side during the Wars of Religion in —, and invaded northern France in ; after some skirmishing in the s and s, Spain and France returned to all-out war between and The war cost France , casualties.

Under Louis XIII , the energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted the centralisation of the state and reinforced the royal power by disarming domestic power holders in the s.

He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence dueling , carrying weapons, and maintaining private army.

By the end of the s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine. This rebellion was driven by the great feudal lords and sovereign courts as a reaction to the rise of royal absolute power in France.

The monarchy reached its peak during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. By turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers at the Palace of Versailles , Louis XIV's personal power became unchallenged.

Remembered for his numerous wars, he made France the leading European power. France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture.

French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century.

Its European territory kept growing, however, with notable acquisitions such as Lorraine and Corsica An unpopular king, Louis XV's weak rule, his ill-advised financial, political and military decisions — as well as the debauchery of his court— discredited the monarchy, which arguably paved the way for the French Revolution 15 years after his death.

The financial crisis aggravated by France's involvement in the American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing factors to the French Revolution.

Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs and inventions, such as the discovery of oxygen and the first hot air balloon carrying passengers , were achieved by French scientists.

The Enlightenment philosophy, in which reason is advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority , undermined the power of and support for the monarchy and helped pave the way for the French Revolution.

As it came to an impasse, the representatives of the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly , signalling the outbreak of the French Revolution.

Fearing that the king would suppress the newly created National Assembly, insurgents stormed the Bastille on 14 July , a date which would become France's National Day.

In early August , the National Constituent Assembly abolished the privileges of the nobility such as personal serfdom and exclusive hunting rights.

Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 27 August France established fundamental rights for men. The Declaration affirms "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression".

Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth.

In November , the Assembly decided to nationalize and sell all property of the Roman Catholic Church which had been the largest landowner in the country.

In July , a Civil Constitution of the Clergy reorganized the French Catholic Church, cancelling the authority of the Church to levy taxes, et cetera.

This fueled much discontent in parts of France, which would contribute to the civil war breaking out some years later. While King Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among the population, his disastrous flight to Varennes June seemed to justify rumors he had tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion.

His credibility was so deeply undermined that the abolition of the monarchy and establishment of a republic became an increasing possibility.

In August , the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia in the Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France to intervene by force of arms to restore the French absolute monarchy.

In the newly established Legislative Assembly October , enmity developed and deepened between a group, later called the ' Girondins ', who favored war with Austria and Prussia , and a group later called ' Montagnards ' or ' Jacobins ', who opposed such a war.

A majority in the Assembly in however saw a war with Austria and Prussia as a chance to boost the popularity of the revolutionary government, and thought that France would win a war against those gathered monarchies.

On 20 April , therefore, they declared war on Austria. In early September, Parisians, infuriated by the Prussian army capturing Verdun and counter-revolutionary uprisings in the west of France, murdered between 1, and 1, prisoners by raiding the Parisian prisons.

The Assembly and the Paris city council seemed unable to stop that bloodshed. France had declared war on Great Britain and the Dutch Republic in November and did the same on Spain in March ; in the spring of , Austria and Prussia invaded France; in March, France created a " sister republic " in the " Republic of Mainz ".

A factionalist feud in the National Convention, smoldering ever since October , came to a climax with the group of the ' Girondins ' on 2 June being forced to resign and leave the convention.

Paris' Convention government between October and December with brutal measures managed to subdue most internal uprisings, at the cost of tens of thousands of lives.

Some historians consider the civil war to have lasted until with a toll of possibly , lives. France in February abolished slavery in its American colonies , but would reintroduce it later.

Political disagreements and enmity in the National Convention between October and July reached unprecedented levels, leading to dozens of Convention members being sentenced to death and guillotined.

Meanwhile, France's external wars in were going prosperous, for example in Belgium. In , the government seemed to return to indifference towards the desires and needs of the lower classes concerning freedom of Catholic religion and fair distribution of food.

Until , politicians, apart from inventing a new parliamentary system the ' Directory ' , busied themselves with dissuading the people from Catholicism and from royalism.

Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in becoming First Consul and later Emperor of the French Empire —; As a continuation of the wars sparked by the European monarchies against the French Republic, changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars on Napoleon's Empire.

His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such as the battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz.

Members of the Bonaparte family were appointed as monarchs in some of the newly established kingdoms. In June , Napoleon attacked Russia, reaching Moscow.

Thereafter his army disintegrated through supply problems, disease, Russian attacks, and finally winter. After the catastrophic Russian campaign , and the ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule, Napoleon was defeated and the Bourbon monarchy restored.

About a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic Wars. The discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown by the July Revolution of , which established the constitutional July Monarchy.

In that year, French troops conquered Algeria, establishing the first colonial presence in Africa since Napoleon's abortive invasion of Egypt in In general unrest led to the February Revolution and the end of the July Monarchy.

The abolition of slavery and introduction of male universal suffrage , which were briefly enacted during the French Revolution, were re-enacted in He multiplied French interventions abroad, especially in Crimea , in Mexico and Italy which resulted in the annexation of the duchy of Savoy and the county of Nice , then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

By , the French conquest of Algeria was complete and approximately , Algerians were killed as a result. France had colonial possessions , in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century, but in the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly and became the second largest in the world behind the British Empire.

In , state secularism was officially established. A small part of Northern France was occupied, but France and its allies emerged victorious against the Central Powers at a tremendous human and material cost.

World War I left 1. In , France was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany and Italy. Metropolitan France was divided into a German occupation zone in the north, an Italian occupation zone in the south-east and Vichy France , a newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany, in the south, while Free France , the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle , was set up in London.

This interim government, established by de Gaulle, aimed to continue to wage war against Germany and to purge collaborators from office. It also made several important reforms suffrage extended to women, creation of a social security system.

The GPRF laid the groundwork for a new constitutional order that resulted in the Fourth Republic , which saw spectacular economic growth les Trente Glorieuses.

France was one of the founding members of NATO Only months later, France faced another anti-colonialist conflict in Algeria. The systematic torture and repression, as well as the extrajudicial killings that were perpetrated to keep control of Algeria , then considered as an integral part of France and home to over one million European settlers , [78] [79] wracked the country and nearly led to a coup and civil war.

In , the weak and unstable Fourth Republic gave way to the Fifth Republic , which included a strengthened Presidency. The Algerian independence came at a high price; the large toll on the Algerian population.

In the context of the Cold War , de Gaulle pursued a policy of "national independence" towards the Western and Eastern blocs.

To this end, he withdrew from NATO 's military integrated command while remaining in the NATO alliance itself , launched a nuclear development programme , and made France the fourth nuclear power.

He restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence.

However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe , favouring a Europe of sovereign nations. In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of , the revolt of May had an enormous social impact.

In France, it is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal religion, patriotism, respect for authority shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal secularism , individualism , sexual revolution.

Although the revolt was a political failure as the Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before it announced a split between the French people and de Gaulle who resigned shortly after.

In the post-Gaullist era, France remained one of the most developed economies in the world , but faced several economic crises that resulted in high unemployment rates and increasing public debt.

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries France has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational European Union , notably by signing the Maastricht Treaty which created the European Union in , establishing the Eurozone in , and signing the Lisbon Treaty in Since the 19th century France has received many immigrants.

These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed. It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims especially in the larger cities living in subsidized public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates.

They were encouraged to retain their distinctive cultures and traditions and required merely to integrate. The vast majority of France's territory and population is situated in Western Europe and is called Metropolitan France , to distinguish it from the country's various overseas polities.

It is bordered by the North Sea in the north, the English Channel in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Mediterranean sea in the southeast.

Its land borders consist of Belgium and Luxembourg in the northeast, Germany and Switzerland in the east, Italy and Monaco in the southeast, and Andorra and Spain in the south and southwest.

With the exception of the northeast, most of France's land borders are roughly delineated by natural boundaries and geographic features: to the south and southeast, the Pyrenees and the Alps and the Jura, respectively, and to the east, the Rhine river.

Due to its shape, France is often referred to as l'Hexagone "The Hexagon ". Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands, of which the largest is Corsica.

France has several overseas regions across the world, which are organized as follows:. France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south central and Pyrenees in the southwest.

Metropolitan France has a wide variety of topographical sets and natural landscapes. Large parts of the current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like the Hercynian uplift in the Paleozoic Era, during which the Armorican Massif , the Massif Central , the Morvan , the Vosges and Ardennes ranges and the island of Corsica were formed.

These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such as the Aquitaine basin in the southwest and the Paris basin in the north, the latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such as the silt beds of Beauce and Brie.

The Alpine, Pyrenean and Jura mountains are much younger and have less eroded forms. At 4, Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.

The French metropolitan territory is relatively large, so the climate is not uniform, giving rise to the following climate nuances:. Summers are hot and dry, while winters are mild and wet.

Summers are warm and dry, while winters are cool and wet. Summers are hot and wet, while winters are cool and damp. Summers are pleasantly warm and wet, while winters are cool and damp.

Summers are hot and wet, while winters are cold and gloomy. Summers are short, cool and wet, while winters are moderately cold and damp.

No major cities are affected by this climate. Summers are pleasantly warm and dry, while winters are very cold and snowy. City affected by this climate: Barcelonnette.

Summers are cool, short and dry, while winters are very cold and snowy. Place affected by this climate: Isola Summers are pleasantly warm and wet, while winters are very cold and snowy.

Cities affected by this climate: Chamonix , Mouthe. Summers are cool, short and wet, while winters are very cold and snowy. Summers are chilly and wet, while winters are extremely cold, long and snowy.

Summers are cold and wet, while winters are extremely cold, long and snowy. France was one of the first countries to create an environment ministry, in This is due to the country's heavy investment in nuclear power following the oil crisis , [] which now accounts for 75 percent of its electricity production [] and results in less pollution.

Forests account for 31 percent of France's land area—the fourth-highest proportion in Europe—representing an increase of 7 percent since The parks foster ecological research programs and public education in the natural sciences.

The French Republic is divided into 18 regions located in Europe and overseas , five overseas collectivities , one overseas territory , one special collectivity — New Caledonia and one uninhabited island directly under the authority of the Minister of Overseas France — Clipperton.

Since France is mainly divided into 18 administrative regions: 13 regions in metropolitan France including the territorial collectivity of Corsica , [] and five located overseas.

This number is used in postal codes and was formerly used on vehicle number plates. The departments are subdivided into arrondissements , which are, in turn, subdivided into 2, cantons.

The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities , meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive.

Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case. Until , the arrondissements were territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area with the exception of St.

Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in In contrast, the five overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro.

The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditions.

The executive branch itself has two leaders. The President of the Republic , currently Emmanuel Macron , is the head of state , elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 5-year term formerly 7 years.

Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms originally 9-year terms ; one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years.

The Senate's legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the National Assembly has the final say.

Since World War II, they were marginalized while French politics became characterized by two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing, centred on the French Section of the Workers' International and its successor the Socialist Party since ; and the other right-wing, centred on the Gaullist Party , whose name changed over time to the Rally of the French People , the Union of Democrats for the Republic , the Rally for the Republic , the Union for a Popular Movement and The Republicans since In the presidential and legislative elections, radical centrist party En Marche!

As of , voter turnout was 75 percent during recent elections, higher than the OECD average of 68 percent. France uses a civil legal system, wherein law arises primarily from written statutes; [97] judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law in a common law system.

Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code which was, in turn, largely based on the royal law codified under Louis XIV.

In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society.

As Guy Canivet , first president of the Court of Cassation , wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality.

That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.

French law is divided into two principal areas: private law and public law. Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law.

Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law. However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law, criminal law, and administrative law.

Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited. France does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions; it has long abolished blasphemy laws and sodomy laws the latter in Since , civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since , same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption are legal.

Some consider hate speech laws in France to be too broad or severe, undermining freedom of speech. Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations. The Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since , and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since In , it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public ; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims.

France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights.

Postwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member.

Since the s , France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU.

However, since , France has maintained an " Entente cordiale " with the United Kingdom, and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.

France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NATO , but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the Special Relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies.

However, as a result of Nicolas Sarkozy's pro-American politics much criticised in France by the leftists and by a part of the right , France re-joined the NATO joint military command on 4 April In the early s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia.

In , France was the fourth-largest donor in absolute terms of development aid in the world, behind the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and the largest in the EU. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces gendarmes are career soldiers , and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces , it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.

When acting as general purpose police force, the Gendarmerie encompasses the counter terrorist units of the Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie Escadron Parachutiste d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale , the National Gendarmerie Intervention Group Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale , the Search Sections of the National Gendarmerie Sections de Recherche de la Gendarmerie Nationale , responsible for criminal enquiries, and the Mobile Brigades of the National Gendarmerie Brigades mobiles de la Gendarmerie Nationale , or in short Gendarmerie mobile which have the task to maintain public order.

There has been no national conscription since France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion , founded in , which consists of foreign nationals from over countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period.

The only other countries having similar units are Spain the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio , was founded in and Luxembourg foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish.

France is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN , and a recognised nuclear state since French nuclear deterrence, formerly known as " Force de Frappe " , relies on complete independence.

The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. France has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world.

France is a major arms seller, [] [] with most of its arsenal's designs available for the export market with the notable exception of nuclear-powered devices.

Other smaller parades are organised across the country. The Government of France has run a budget deficit each year since the early s.

As of [update] , French government debt levels reached 2. A member of the Group of Seven formerly Group of Eight leading industrialized countries, as of [update] , it is ranked as the world's tenth largest and the EU's second largest economy by purchasing power parity.

France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise [] [] with substantial state enterprise and government intervention. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.

As of [update] , the World Trade Organization WTO reported France was the world's sixth largest exporter and the fourth largest importer of manufactured goods.

Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy. Three largest financial institutions cooperatively owned by their customers are located in France.

Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

France introduced the common European currency, the Euro in French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: AXA is the world's largest insurance company.

France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products. Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognized processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports.

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